Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Nov 2 2018The Huntington’s Disease Regulatory Science Consortium (HD-RSC), launched in March 2018 by the Critical Path Institute (C-Path) and CHDI Foundation, today, along with the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC), announce the open availability of a newly developed Huntington’s Disease Therapeutic Area User Guide (TAUG-HD). The guide has been developed to describe the most broadly utilized clinical concepts for data acquisition and analysis in Huntington’s disease (HD) clinical studies using the CDISC standard format. The user guide defines parameters for data collection and allows datasets from different sources to be compared or combined for sharing and analysis.Huntington’s disease is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder that results in psychological symptoms and a loss of motor function and cognitive ability. TAUG-HD focuses on representing HD clinical data using the CDISC Study Data Tabulation Model (SDTM). Types of data covered include genetic information, biofluid sampling and imaging data across several modalities, as well as results from a variety of disease measures including the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) and the Huntington’s Disease Cognitive Assessment Battery (HD-CAB). Historically, clinical trial data has been collected in diverse data formats in independent studies. The ability to align data using the newly developed HD data standards will enable efficient data collection, data integration and regulatory review.”We are thrilled with the publication of the new Huntington’s Disease Therapeutic Area User Guide,” said C-Path Executive Director of the HD-RSC Ariana P. Mullin, Ph.D. “We encourage the research community to rapidly adopt these standards in their studies, as collection of data in a common format is key to supporting the development of urgently needed drug development tools and therapies for HD.”Related StoriesFungal infection study identifies specific genetic vulnerability among Hmong peopleHealthy lifestyle lowers dementia risk despite genetic predispositionResearch sheds light on sun-induced DNA damage and repairThe US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Binding Guidance requires that sponsors submit data in FDA-supported CDISC formats listed in the FDA Data Standards Catalog. CDISC standards have been adopted and used in more than 90 countries and are required by regulatory authorities in the US and Japan. To date, Therapeutic Area User Guides have been developed for more than 30 different disease areas. Use of these standards from the start of clinical research programs has proven capable of saving both time and resources. HD researchers are encouraged to implement these standards into their processes to support data sharing efforts and accelerate development.”The adoption of CDISC standards will be critical to database development and harmonization, and will promote, coordinate, and facilitate the reuse of clinical data,” said CHDI Chief Clinical Officer Cristina Sampaio, M.D., Ph.D. “These standards facilitate the wide sharing of data and, crucially, regulatory submissions. The newly-developed TAUG is an important step in our common goal of smoothing the path towards HD drug development and licensure.””Our ongoing collaborations with C-Path in various disease areas, including Huntington’s, continue to provide great value and insight to our work,” said CDISC President and CEO David R. Bobbitt, MSc, MBA. “It was important to all of us that we help patients and families by creating data standards for HD to quickly move forward the most promising science for treatments.” Source:https://c-path.org/c-path-chdi-and-cdisc-announce-therapeutic-area-user-guide-for-huntingtons-disease/?fbclid=IwAR1c8C_JvKdRJQ4BpGYAVM66NJpMCBKOnEuZdDqfqUycpRKaQPnuhNM5X4U
Source:https://iq.hse.ru/en/news/228972504.html Reviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Dec 6 2018One of the most obvious changes that comes with aging is that people start doing things more slowly. Numerous studies have shown that aging also affects language processing. Even neurologically healthy people speak, retrieve words and read more slowly as they get older. But is this slowdown inevitable? Researchers from the Higher School of Economics have been working to answer this question in their article ‘http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2018-56780-001′. No evidence for strategic nature of age-related slowing in sentence processing’.Researchers from the HSE Centre for Language and Brain investigated whether slower reading in older people is ‘strategic’. The researchers aimed to understand whether this slowdown is absolutely necessary to understand a text, or whether it happens due to ‘strategic’ reasons, such as excessive cautiousness, fear of making a mistake, or to save the cognitive effort and adjust the workload to one’s neurophysiological capabilities. ‘We hypothesized that the elderly might, consciously or unconsciously, be ‘overcautious’ and read more slowly than they could have’, said Svetlana Malyutina, deputy director of the Centre for Language and Brain.Related StoriesStudy provides new insight into longitudinal decline in brain network integrity associated with agingResearch team to create new technology for tackling concussionDon’t Miss the Blood-Brain Barrier Drug Delivery (B3DD) Summit this AugustThe study involved volunteers from two age groups: younger people aged 18 to 24, and older people aged 59 to 81. At first, the researchers determined the individual reading speed for each of the participants: sentences appeared on a computer screen word-by-word, and the participants had to press the button to proceed to the following word. This allowed to establish the speed preferred by the participants themselves. On the next day of the experiment, the word presentation rate was imposed externally: in the first part of the testing, it was equal to the participant’s average reading speed, and in the second part, it was twice as fast.The researchers assumed that initially, younger participants were choosing the fastest possible speed that allowed them to understand what they had read, while older participants were ‘strategically’ reading more slowly than they could have. Thus, it was expected that the externally increased sentence presentation rate would decrease the understanding among older people to a lesser extent than among young people.But this hypothesis wasn’t supported: when sentence presentation was sped up, the rate of correct answers decreased equally among younger and older participants. Thus, the study did not find evidence that older people read more slowly due to ‘strategic’ reasons when they choose their own reading speed. ‘The age-related slowdown is probably inevitable after all. It may provide the necessary time for lexical access and grammar analysis’, explained Anna Laurinavichyute, junior research fellow at the HSE Centre for Language and Brain.The researchers recommend that older readers embrace their natural reading speed and do not try to ‘forcefully’ increase it. In all likelihood, this slowdown helps provide a high rate of text understanding.
Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Mar 14 2019Major depressive disorder is a debilitating illness that affects more than 350 million people around the world. The most common treatments for depression are Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), drugs such as Prozac that increase serotonin levels in some regions of the brain. About half of the patients who take the pills, however, do not respond to treatment.This team is thus trying to understand the molecular mechanisms of such treatment resistance. Ultimately, they would like to be able to predict which people will respond to antidepressant drugs before they begin treatment, and to develop new treatments that can circumvent antidepressant resistance in the millions of people who do not respond now to antidepressants.This is a research collaboration between the Neuroscience group at Columbia University Medical Center, where Rene Hen is an expert in basic and translational research and neuropsychiatric disorders, and the Functional Genomics group at Columbia Engineering, where Sergey Kalachikov is a genomicist with expertise in molecular biology, data analysis and statistics. Columbia’s Data Science Institute supports the research with a $100,000 Seed Fund Grant.They and other researchers have shown that an area of the brain called the hippocampal dentate gyrus plays a critical role in a person’s response to antidepressants. Dentate gyrus is part of the brain that is mainly responsible for learning and new memories and one of the few areas of the brain where new neurons are born during adulthood. Recently, while studying gene activity in neurons in the dentate gyrus, the team identified specific regulatory pathways and genes associated with the lack of response to antidepressant treatment.In particular, they found a strong association between treatment resistance and regulation of dendritic spines, small protrusions on the surface of neuronal cells in the brain that are responsible for connections between neurons. Moreover, ten of the candidate genes found by Hen and Kalachikov are among the 13 genes associated with depression identified by a genetics consortium working in collaboration with 23andMe. That correlation of genes in both studies supports the team’s preliminary results.Related StoriesTeens who can describe negative emotions are better protected against depressionStudy finds depression and anxiety symptoms among many asylum seekersNew structured approach to managing patients with depression in primary careThe team is now using a combination of data science and experimental approaches to pinpoint the mechanisms underlying resistance to antidepressants. Applying computational genomics, they will integrate several types of their own data with publicly available data on antidepressant resistance, including information on gene expression, behavior, and neuronal cell morphology. Then, using mice as animal models of depression, they will validate their predictions experimentally by monitoring the effect of antidepressants on the dendritic spines in the brains of the mice. The study will reveal targets for genetic manipulations for a future research project that will include single-cell analysis to find particular neuronal types in the brain that are involved in treatment resistance.”We feel very privileged to be able to contribute to solving this problem,” says Kalachikov. “A plethora of regulatory pathways are involved, and there are difficulties in carrying out this kind of analysis at the level required for precision medicine. I hope that in a year or two we will have a good picture of what’s going on in critical areas of the brain, in the dentate gyrus in particular, that prevent antidepressants from working in half the people who try them, and that we will be able to predict genetic mechanisms in the body that can be targeted by antidepressants. If we succeed, these new targets and treatments could allow millions of people to lead healthier and happier lives.” Source:https://datascience.columbia.edu/molecular-mechanisms-treatment-resistant-depression-towards-modeling-antidepressant-response-and-pr-0
Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)May 17 2019As many as 90 percent of individuals who have a parent with Huntington’s disease (HD) choose not to take a gene test that reveals if they will also develop the fatal disorder — and a new study details the reasons why.Understanding the “why” matters as new clinical trials testing therapies for people who haven’t yet developed symptoms of Huntington disease requires participants to be tested for the HD gene to be included in the trials.The study, published today in Clinical Genetics, also suggests that individuals who have chosen not to be tested can benefit from supportive counseling, which is not usually offered. Health care providers really need to help individuals at risk for Huntington’s disease think through their decision whether or not to participate in a clinical trial that requires testing. For someone who has not wanted genetic testing for many years, we may be leading people to do a test that has not been and still may not be in their personal interest.”Karen E. Anderson, MD, study’s lead investigator, associate professor of psychiatry & neurology at Georgetown University Medical Center She says, “For those who want testing and are ready to cope with the result, either positive or negative, it is our duty to help them get this information so they can make decisions about future care, financial planning and, possibly, study participation. For those who are not ready to be tested, or never want testing, we need also to support their choices,” says Anderson, who is also director of Huntington’s Disease Care, Education & Research Center, a joint program of Georgetown University and MedStar Georgetown Hospital.Huntington’s disease is caused by an inherited defect in a single gene. Inheritance is autosomal dominant: only one copy of a mutated HD gene is needed to pass on the disorder, thus the chance of inheritance is 50 percent. (A person inherits two copies of every gene, one from each parent. A parent with a defective gene can pass on either a mutant or healthy HD gene.)The disease produces progressive degeneration of nerve cells in the brain, which affects the ability to move and think, and often results in depression and other psychiatric disorders due to functional changes in the brain.To date, there is no cure for the disease and no way to prevent its onset. It is always fatal. People who have the HD genetic mutation expansion will develop HD (unless they die of other causes before it develops). Anderson says there are effective treatments for the symptoms, and a “pipeline” of drugs that may alter the course of the disease are now in clinical testing. Among them are gene silencing techniques that may lower the level of abnormal protein that is produced by the HD gene.The age at which a person with the HD genetic mutation develops the disorder depends on the number of times a coding mistake in the gene is repeated. Symptoms in adults can begin as early as age 20, or, more likely, in mid-life, (ages 30-50). Onset after age 80 has been reported. Once they begin, symptoms worsen over 10-25 years until death.The HD gene that causes the disease was isolated in 1993 and a predictive gene test quickly followed. Studies have been conducted on why people choose to take the gene test, but only one large study has been done on why people don’t — the subject of the Clinical Genetics publication.Related StoriesSartorius launches new ambr 250 modular bioreactor vessel for cell and gene therapy applicationsRevolutionary gene replacement surgery restores vision in patients with retinal degenerationResearchers capture high-resolution, 3D images of gene-editing enzymesThis study included 1001 potential HD mutation carriers who had chosen not to learn their HD status. These individuals agreed to participate in the Prospective Huntington At-Risk Observational Study (PHAROS), carried out between 1999 and 2008. Data from a subset of 733 of these subjects were used in the current report by Anderson and others.The two primary reasons why participants did not want to know their risk was because they felt no effective cure or treatment exists and their inability to undo the knowledge they learned from the test.”Our subjects were optimistic that a treatment to improve symptoms or postpone treatment would be developed with the next ten years, but they had less certainty about the prospect of preventing the disease,” Anderson says.”Back in 1993, when the genetic mutation causing HD was discovered, we anticipated that many people at risk would want to be tested, just to deal with the uncertainty, but that is not the case. Only about 10-15 percent of people who know they are at risk for HD have been tested since the test became available, and that percentage really hasn’t changed much over time. This study shows there are important, relevant reasons why people don’t want to be tested,” she says.As part of the PHAROS study, participants gave permission for gene analysis with the understanding that they would not be told the results.Helping to understand why people chose not to test makes it easier for physicians and genetic counselors to broach the subject with individuals at risk, especially if they are considering a clinical trial, she says.”We already know that clinicians have fewer conversations with people at risk for Huntington’s who chose not to test, compared with people who do seek a test, who receive evaluation and supportive counseling prior to testing. Now we know factors people cite for why they don’t want to know their status,” says Anderson.”This study shows us that, as new treatments develop that will require genetic testing for clinical trial participation, we should reassess attitudes about how people at risk for disease approach this life-altering choice. It tells us that we should understand, and respect, decisions not to have that testing,” she says.Currently there are about 30,000 Americans who are symptomatic, and more than 200,000 who are at risk of developing the disease, according to the Huntington’s Disease Society of America.Source:Georgetown University Medical CenterJournal reference:Anderson, K.E. et al. (2019) The choice not to undergo genetic testing for Huntington disease: Results from the PHAROS study. Clinical Genetics. doi.org/10.1111/cge.13529
© 2018 AFP US tax authorities will give Americans an extra day to send in their tax returns after the government computer system for filing them electronically failed on the day of the deadline. US tax authorities are giving Americans an extra day to send in their tax returns after the government computer system for filing them electronically failed on the day of the deadline Citation: Glitch means extra day for Americans to file taxes (2018, April 18) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-04-glitch-extra-day-americans-taxes.html Nigerian man charged in US school districts phishing scam This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further For much of Tuesday—the last day for Americans to file their tax returns for 2017—online conduits for direct payments, electronic filings and filings via tax preparation companies failed.The system eventually came back up, but the Internal Revenue Service said it now will give people until midnight Wednesday to file.According to The Washington Post, two senior government officials said initial assessments suggested the problems stemmed from internal technology failures. One said it appeared the system crashed because of so many people filing at the last minute.
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further Citation: Pressure helps to make better Li-ion batteries (2018, November 14) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-11-pressure-li-ion-batteries.html 3D-printed lithium-ion batteries Lithium titanium oxide (Li4Ti5O12, LTO), a “zero-strain” anode material for Li-ion batteries (LIBs), exhibits excellent cycling performance. However, it shows poor conductivity, which is the major drawback and limits its applications. In a recent paper published in National Science Review, it is reported that static compression can highly improve the conductivity of LTO by pressure-induced amorphization and promoting ion migration defects for Li+. The results suggest amorphous LTO is a better anode material for LIBs. Rechargeable Li-ion batteries are crucial parts for home electronics and portable devices such as cell phones and laptops. One can imagine how the life we have today would be like without cell phones and internet. Li-ion batteries (LIBs) are also growing in popularity for electric vehicle which can help to highly reduce the emission of CO2 and diminish the serious greenhouse effect on the earth. All these demands call for superior Li-ion battery materials with better performance such as higher capacity, longer life time, lower cost, etc.Lithium titanium oxide (Li4Ti5O12, LTO) spinel experiences negligible volume change during lithium insertion and extraction and is regarded as a “zero-strain” anode material for LIBs. Due to its great structural stability, LTO exhibits excellent cycling performance, making it a promising anode for LIBs in electrical vehicle and large-scale energy storage areas. However, LTO shows poor electronic and ionic conductivities, limiting its applications. Therefore, improving its conductivity becomes crucial.In a recent research article published in the Beijing-based National Science Review, scientists at the Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research, Institute of Geochemistry, and Institute of Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, and George Mason University, Carnegie Institution of Washington, and Argonne National Laboratory of USA present their results on the studies of phase stability and conductivity of LTO under high pressure. It was found that the LTO spinel structure starts to distort due to the significant difference in compressibility of the building blocks, LiO6 and TiO6 octahedra in LTO at low pressures. The strong highly distorted structure transforms into amorphous eventually as pressure over around 270 thousands times normal atmospheric pressure. Remarkably, the amorphous LTO can be decompressed down to ambient pressure and displays much better conductivity than crystalline LTO. “These findings may offer a new strategy for improving the conductivity of LTO anode in Li-ion batteries using a high-pressure technique.” said Dr. Lin Wang, the corresponding author of the article.To understand the significant enhancement of conductivity in the amorphous phase, the ionic transport properties of crystalline and amorphous LTO were investigated by first-principles molecular dynamics simulations. Theoretical calculations revealed that the amorphous phase induced by high pressure can highly promote Li+ diffusion and increase its ionic conductivity by providing ion migration defects. “All of these findings increase the understanding of the relationship between structure and conducting properties of LTO” Dr. Wang added. The resistance of LTO changes with increasing and decreasing pressure, the insets show the corresponding structures at different pressure regions. It indicates that LTO undergoes crystalline-distortion-amorphous transitions under high pressure. The resistance increases at lower pressures during the lattice distortion, then it starts to decrease sharply as amorphization takes place at higher pressure. The amorphous LTO can be decompressed down to ambient pressure and has much better conductivity compares with the crystalline LTO. Credit: ©Science China Press More information: Yanwei Huang et al, Li-ion battery material under high pressure: amorphization and enhanced conductivity of Li4Ti5O12, National Science Review (2018). DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwy122 Provided by Science China Press
The SoftBank mobile unit IPO is seen as part of CEO Masayoshi Son’s strategy of transforming the company into a global hi-tech firm Shares in SoftBank’s mobile unit rebounded after steep early declines on a rollercoaster second trading day Thursday This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further Shares in the mobile unit of Japanese technology giant SoftBank rebounded after steep early declines on a rollercoaster second trading day Thursday, after a bruising debut saw stocks close 14.5 percent lower. © 2018 AFP SoftBank mobile unit in record IPO but market debut flops ‘Tough start’The benchmark Japanese market, the Nikkei 225, also opened down nearly one percent and ended the Thursday session down 2.84 percent as traders fretted over the pace of US Federal Reserve rate hikes next year.Speaking to reporters after Wednesday’s stock plunge, Ken Miyauchi, CEO of the SoftBank Corp mobile division, acknowledged it was “unfortunate that the share price ended down”.”But this is only the beginning. Many things will happen. We are off to a tough start of our journey… but I see this as a new start for our business,” Miyauchi said.SoftBank took more than one-third of its mobile unit public and was able to sell the full offering of 1.76 billion shares at the IPO price of 1,500 yen, beating the previous national records set by NTT in 1987 and its subsidiary NTT Docomo in 1998.The blockbuster IPO was seen as part of Son’s strategy of transforming SoftBank from a Japan-based telecom company to a global hi-tech investment firm.Analysts at ratings agency Standard & Poor’s have said the listing “would further underline SoftBank’s transition to an investment holding company”.Another agency, Moody’s, said the IPO would “enhance transparency” in the parent company’s investment portfolio because the mobile unit’s “share price and daily market value will be available to the public”.The SoftBank parent company itself has said the listing would give the mobile unit “greater managerial autonomy to develop its own growth strategy”. Citation: Shares in SoftBank mobile unit rebound after earlier plunge (2018, December 20) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-12-softbank-mobile-rebound-earlier-plunge.html In early exchanges, shares in SoftBank Corp were down 7.6 percent at 1,183 yen as heavy selling dominated at the opening bell. The IPO price was 1,500 yen.The shares were 8.3 percent down at their lowest point—22 percent below the IPO price.But buyers were found at that level and shares erased all of their early losses, eventually closing in positive territory at 1,296 yen, up 1.09 percent.The stock in fact bucked the trend on a day of heavy selling on the wider Tokyo market, with the benchmark Nikkei 225 down more than three percent and plunging to a 15-month low.The volatile trading came after the firm raised some $23.5 billion in an initial public offering that was Japan’s biggest and the second-largest globally after Chinese e-commerce giant Alibaba’s debut in 2014.The money raised will swell the coffers of CEO Masayoshi Son’s Vision Fund, which has invested in some of the hottest tech firms, including Uber and WeWork.Analysts said the stock had underperformed for several reasons: a weaker market in general, concerns over increased official intervention in the Japanese mobile sector, and a humiliating technical glitch in the run-up to the IPO.But “after the dips, some are buying partly because they are attracted to expected high dividend yields of the shares,” said Hiroaki Hiwata, strategist at Toyo Securities.
Mukesh Rawat New DelhiJuly 16, 2019UPDATED: July 16, 2019 17:56 IST Uncertainty over the Iranian airspace due to the ongoing US-Iran tensions is forcing Indian airlines to take costly and time-consuming detours. (Photo: Facebook/AirIndia)HIGHLIGHTSThe US has issued an advisory for airlines to avoid Iranian airspaceFlights from India have been avoiding the Iranian airspace to ensure safetyThe re-routing of flights adds operation cost by Rs 37 lakh every dayA cut in crude oil import from Iran is not the only repercussion that India is facing due to the prevailing US-Iran tensions. Every day Indian airline operators are incurring an additional operation cost of approximately Rs 37 lakh because of the uncertainty over the Iranian airspace.Flights from India are avoiding the Iranian airspace because of the rising tensions between the US and Iran. This has meant that Indian flights have to be re-routed and take longer routes.Meanwhile, on Tuesday, after a sustained reluctance of nearly four-and-a-half months, Pakistan finally decided to open its airspace which it had closed following the February 26 airstrikes by the Indian Air Force on terror camps in Balakot. (More on this later)The opening of Pakistan airspace is good news for Indian and international airlines that were incurring additional operation costs running into crores, but concerns persist due to uncertainty over the Iranian airspace.Iran is located in a strategic position and shares its border with Pakistan. Of late, it has been in the eye of a major tussle with the United States.The Donald Trump administration has imposed severe economic sanctions on Iran. This was after Donald Trump last year pulled the US out from the 2015 US-Iran nuclear treaty. Animosity between the two countries has been on the rise with threats of war looming large. The US has also asked countries, including India, to stop buying crude oil from Iran.The opening of Pakistan airspace is good news for Indian and international airlines that were incurring additional operation costs running into crores, but concerns persist due to uncertainty over the Iranian airspace.In the wake of this, on June 20, the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) issued an advisory for avoiding the Iranian airspace.Though India has not issued any formal order for airlines to avoid the Iranian airspace, Indian airline operators have decided to avoid it for safety.”All airlines in consultation with the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) have decided to avoid flying over areas of Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman and Strait of Hormuz within Iranian airspace to ensure safety,” the central government informed Parliament recently in a written reply.The government said re-routing of flights in this sector has affected the operations of Indian airlines as they have to incur additional operation cost.How airlines are stressed due to uncertain Iranian airspace:Air India Express (a subsidiary of Air India) is incurring an additional operation cost of Rs 22 lakh per day.Air India is incurring an additional operation cost of Rs 13 lakh per day.IndiGo is incurring an additional operation cost of Rs 2 lakh per day.No. of flights affected every day:Air India Express: 9 flightsAir India: 9 flightsIndiGo: 2 flights(These are the number of flights that have to be re-routed by airlines everyday because of the prevailing uncertainty over the Iranian airspace.)The government has however assured that the additional cost will not be passed on customers.COST OF PAKISTAN AIRSPACE CLOSUREIn February when Pakistan announced an indefinite closure of its airspace, it said it was doing so to protect its strategic interests as India strengthened its defence by positioning fighter jets along its border posts. All this happened in the aftermath of the Pulwama terror attack that killed 40 jawans of the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) on February 14.The closure of Pakistan airspace (a busy route for commercial flights) was not just strategic in nature. It came with economic repercussions on airlines from South Asia, Africa, Europe, the United States and Southeast Asia.The Pakistan airspace is commercially important because it lies in the middle of an important aviation corridor. In a report, news agency Reuters had earlier said, “OPSGROUP, which monitors international flight operations, used International Civil Aviation Organisation data to calculate that the closed airspace was affecting as many as 350 flights daily.” How closure of airspace over Pakistan affected international flight. (Source: Reuters)These were not just flights run by Indian operators and mostly included those operated by Singapore Airlines, British Airways, Lufthansa, Thai Airways among others.The closure of Pakistan airspace (a busy route for commercial flights) was not just strategic in nature. It came with economic repercussions on airlines from South Asia, Africa, Europe, the United States and Southeast Asia.India’s public sector airline – Air India – has suffered an additional operational burden of Rs 3.96 crore every day since Pakistan closed its airspace. This was because the flights had to be re-routed, which increased the flying time and escalated operation cost.The overall additional operation cost, or the loss suffered by Air India, is estimated to be Rs 490.6 crore.SectorAvg extra cost (daily)Avg extra cost (monthly)Middle East and AfricaRs 40 lakhRs 1,201.39 lakhUK and European UnionRs 201.16 lakhRs 6,034.67 lakhUS and CanadaRs 154.46 lakhRs 4,633.91 lakhTotalRs 395.63 lakh (Rs 3.96 crore)Rs 11,869.97 lakh (Rs 118.7 crore)OVERALL MONTHLY LOSS OF AIR INDIA:MonthDaysAmount (in Rs crore)March31122.7April30118.7May31122.7June30118.7July27.9Air India was not the only Indian operator to suffer loss due to closure of Pakistan airspace. The central goverment has told Parliament that IndiGo, Spicejet and Go Air too incurred losses worth crores.IndiGo (till May 31): Rs 25.1 croreSpiceJet (till June 20): Rs 30.73 croreGoAir (till June 20): Rs 2.1 croreWhile these figures, presented by the central government in Parliament recently, do not cover the entire period of the airspace closure, they still are enough to give an idea of the additional operation cost Indian airlines had to incur over the past few months.Pakistan opening its airspace is good news not only for Indian operators but also for many international airlines whose services were badly hit. Now, restoration of normalcy over the Iranian airspace is what they would all be dearly hoping.ALSO READ | Long delays, hiked price, cancelled flights: How Pakistan airspace closure has disrupted air travelALSO READ | What made Pakistan open its airspace for IndiaALSO WATCH | Pakistan reopens its airspace for civilian trafficFor the latest World Cup news, live scores and fixtures for World Cup 2019, log on to indiatoday.in/sports. Like us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter for World Cup news, scores and updates.Get real-time alerts and all the news on your phone with the all-new India Today app. Download from Post your comment Do You Like This Story? Awesome! Now share the story Too bad. Tell us what you didn’t like in the comments Posted byMukesh Rawat Tags :Follow Air IndiaFollow US-Iran ties Indian airlines suffering Rs 37 lakh loss daily as US-Iran tensions make Iranian airspace riskyFlights from India are avoiding the Iranian airspace because of the rising tensions between the US and Iran. This has meant that Indian flights have to be re-routed and take longer routes.advertisement Next
An excavation in a peculiar place — under the foundation of a dance floor in Russia — has uncovered the remains of one of Napoleon Bonaparte’s favorite generals: a one-legged man who was killed by a cannonball more than 200 years ago, news sources report. Gen. Charles Etienne Gudin fought with Napoleon during the failed French invasion of Russia in 1812. On July 6 of this year, an international team of French and Russian archaeologists discovered what are believed to be his remains, in Smolensk, a city about 250 miles (400 kilometers) west of Moscow, according to Reuters.These Sharks Were Too Busy to Notice a Bigger Predator Watching ThemThe unexpected twist at the end of this feeding frenzy delighted scientists.Credit: NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research, Windows to the Deep 2019Your Recommended PlaylistVolume 0%Press shift question mark to access a list of keyboard shortcutsKeyboard Shortcutsplay/pauseincrease volumedecrease volumeseek forwardsseek backwardstoggle captionstoggle fullscreenmute/unmuteseek to %SPACE↑↓→←cfm0-9接下来播放Headbutting Tiny Worms Are Really, Really Loud00:35关闭选项Automated Captions – en-US facebook twitter 发邮件 reddit 链接https://www.livescience.com/65920-napoleon-general-found-in-russia.html?jwsource=cl已复制直播00:0002:2802:28 After his death at age 44 on Aug. 22, 1812, Gudin got star treatment. His name was inscribed on the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, his bust was placed at the Palace of Versailles, a Paris street was named after him and, as a sentimental gesture, his heart was removed from his body and placed in a chapel at the Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris. [Photos: Archaeologists Excavate Battlefield from Napoleonic Wars] The researchers said that several clues suggested that the skeleton they found under the dance floor belongs to Gudin, who had known Napoleon since childhood. Both men attended the Military School in Brienne, in France’s Champagne region. Upon hearing of Gudin’s death, Napoleon reportedly cried and ordered that his friend’s name be engraved on the Arc de Triomphe, according to Euronews. Photos: A 400-Year-Old War Grave Revealed Records from the 1812 Russian invasion note that Gudin’s battlefield injuries required him to have his left leg amputated below the knee, Euronews reported. Indeed, the skeleton in the coffin was missing its left leg and showed evidence of injury to the right leg — details that were also mentioned in those records, the archaeologists said, according to Reuters. Moreover, it was “with a high degree of probability” that the remains the team uncovered belonged to an aristocrat and a military veteran of both the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars, they said, according to Reuters. “It’s a historic moment not only for me, but for I think for our two countries,” French historian and archaeologist Pierre Malinovsky, who helped find the remains, told the Smolensk newspaper Rabochiy Put (Worker’s Journey), according to Reuters. “Napoleon was one of the last people to see him alive, which is very important, and he’s the first general from the Napoleonic period that we have found.” The general has known living descendants, so researchers plan to test the skeleton for DNA. That way, they’ll be able to say for sure whether the remains are those of Gudin. Gudin, however, is hardly the only French fatality recently found in Russia. Earlier this year, scientists did a virtual facial reconstruction of a man in his 20s who was slashed in the face with a saber and died during the invasion of Russia. 19 of the World’s Oldest Photos Reveal a Rare Side of History Photos: Mass Graves Hold 17th-Century Prisoners of War A portrait of Charles Etienne Gudin, who fought in Napoleon’s Grande Armée. Credit: Photo12/UIG/Getty Images Originally published on Live Science.
Headbutting Tiny Worms Are Really, Really LoudThis rapid strike produces a loud ‘pop’ comparable to those made by snapping shrimps, one of the most intense biological sounds measured at sea.Volume 0%Press shift question mark to access a list of keyboard shortcutsKeyboard Shortcutsplay/pauseincrease volumedecrease volumeseek forwardsseek backwardstoggle captionstoggle fullscreenmute/unmuteseek to %SPACE↑↓→←cfm0-9接下来播放Better Bug Sprays?01:33 facebook twitter 发邮件 reddit 链接https://www.livescience.com/65945-tiny-worms-emit-loud-noise.html?jwsource=cl已复制直播00:0000:3500:35Your Recommended Playlist01:33Better Bug Sprays?01:08Why Do French Fries Taste So Bad When They’re Cold?04:24Sperm Whale Befriends Underwater Robot00:29Robot Jumps Like a Grasshopper, Rolls Like a Ball02:31Surgical Robotics00:29Video – Giggly Robot关闭 Tiny, feisty worms that live off the coast of Japan fight by headbutting each other — and they aren’t quiet about it. During these feuds, the worms emit one of the loudest sounds in the ocean, according to a new study. The source of the underwater hullabaloo is a nearly transparent segmented worm called the Leocratides kimuraorum, which lives inside sponges 279 to 554 feet (85 to 169 meters) deep off the coast of Japan. [The 12 Weirdest Animal Discoveries]Advertisement These wigglies are just a tad more than an inch (29 millimeters) long and have lengthy tentacles and a big mouth (literally). These seemingly quiet creatures revealed their true nature under the spotlight in the lab. A group of researchers used an instrument called a hydrophone to record 15 pops that were emitted from three kimuraorums as they were fighting. In a marine feud researchers dub “mouth-fighting,” the worms approached each other headfirst with their mouths open. During such encounters, the worms’ pharynx muscles expand rapidly, creating a cavitation bubble that collapses and produces a loud “pop” while the worms launch into each other. The researchers found that these pops can reach 157 decibels in the water (which is a different measurement than decibels in the air). From right next to the water tank, the pops sounded like humans snapping their fingers, lead author Goto Ryutaro, an assitant professor at Kyoto University told Live Science. “Though they probably sound louder if you hear them in the water.” The worms are as loud as snapping shrimps, which are one of the biggest noisemakers in the ocean, the authors wrote. What’s more, they found that these worms did not make any noise when simply disturbed, they only did so when they were fighting. They “may use mouth-fighting to defend territory or living chambers from other worms,” the authors wrote July 8 in the journal Current Biology. “A loud pop may be a byproduct of the rapid mouth attack, but it may also aid intraspecific communication.” A loud noise could somehow determine the victor of the fight or even reveal the whereabouts of nearby worms, they wrote. 13 Extremely Weird Animal Feet Originally published on Live Science.by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May LikeVikings: Free Online GamePlay this for 1 min and see why everyone is addicted!Vikings: Free Online GameUndoTruthFinder People Search SubscriptionOne Thing All Liars Have in Common, Brace YourselfTruthFinder People Search SubscriptionUndoKelley Blue Book2019 Lexus Vehicles Worth Buying for Their Resale ValueKelley Blue BookUndoGundry MD Total Restore SupplementU.S. Cardiologist: It’s Like a Pressure Wash for Your InsidesGundry MD Total Restore SupplementUndoTop 10 Best Meal DeliveryMeal Kit Wars: 10 Tested & Ranked. See Who WonTop 10 Best Meal DeliveryUndoArticles VallyDad Cuts Daughter’s Hair Off For Getting Birthday Highlights, Then Mom Does The UnthinkableArticles VallyUndo Strange Love: 10 Animals with Truly Weird Courtship Rituals The 10 Strangest Animal Discoveries
export and import SHARE retail Gold discounts in India were at their widest in nine months, this week as higher domestic prices tempered retail purchases, while buying in other Asian centres remained subdued amid a lack of significant momentum in global prices.Dealers in India were offering a discount of up to $7.50 an ounce over official domestic prices this week, the highest since Sept. 9. This compared with discounts of $5 last week. The domestic price includes a 10 percent import tax.Gold was being sold at a discount in Indian markets for the sixth straight week.“Jewellery showrooms were deserted. Retail buying was negligible due to the price rise and Adhik Maas,” said Daman Prakash Rathod, a director at MNC Bullion, a wholesaler in Chennai.Adhik Maas is an extra month in Hindu calendar that ended on June 13. The month is considered inauspicious and people avoid weddings, buying gold or property during the period.In the Indian market, gold futures were trading at around Rs. 31,344 per 10 grams, not far from Rs. 31,620 hit in April, their highest since August 2016.“Jewellers are running operations with thin inventory. They are delaying re-stocking due to the price rise,” said a Mumbai-based dealer with a private bullion importing bank.Gold imports into India, the world’s second biggest buyer of the metal, could drop by 18 percent in 2018 from a year ago, according to poll.In top consumer China, premiums of $5-$6 an ounce were being charged, compared with $5-$7 last week.“There is not too much activity in China as prices were stuck around the $1,295 to $1,300 level,” said Ronald Leung, chief dealer at Lee Cheong Gold Dealers in Hong Kong.Benchmark spot gold prices continued to move in a narrow range this week, with investors remaining cautious in the run up to a historic U.S.-North Korea summit and the U.S. Federal reserve meeting earlier in the week.Premiums in Singapore were between 60 cents to $1 an ounce, compared with 60 cents last week.In Hong Kong, premiums remained unchanged between 60 cents and $1.30 an ounce.Gold was being sold flat against the benchmark price in Tokyo, as it was last week, as domestic prices continued to trade within a tight range, a Tokyo-based trader said. COMMENTS June 14, 2018 business (general) FILE PHOTO. SHARE SHARE EMAIL Published on COMMENT gold and precious material
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